In Israel, to obtain a driving license, the wannabee driver has to pass both theory and practice exams and then to drive with an experienced driver riding shot-gun.
Periodically, drivers have to do refresher courses, even if they don’t have points on their license for traffic offences.
The system is far from perfect in that annually there are plenty of traffic offences and people killed in traffic accidents. Israel is a Mediterranean country and this affects the attitude of drivers, but I digress.
Borsy is a Publishing House that has a monopolistic license from the government to generate and distribute driving theory multiple choice questions.
Derekh (Way) has a website that teaches driving theory.
Borsy sued Derekh for copyright infringement claiming that it publicized multiple choice questions (known in Israel as American testing) cribbed from Borsy.
A magistrate’s court ruled that Derekh did indeed copy multiple choice questions, sometimes with minor changes in wording, or use of synonyms. It rejected a defense offered by Derekh that they were operating under an agreement with Borsy, and ordered Derekh to pay Borsy 85000 Shekels in compensation.
- A few years ago, the Israel Supreme Court overturned a ruling for copyright infringement in grammar text bookscopyright infringement in grammar textbooks. Frankly, I am not a great fan of either unique government licenses to make up tests of this nature, or to extend copyright to include synonyms and minor changes of wording. There are a limited number of multiple choice questions that can be based on the highway code. Reproducing road signs may itself be copyright infringement. However, the real question is one of policy. Do we want monopolies in this area?